Angiographic Anatomy of the Upper and Lower Extremities

Publication ID Published Volume
9129 April 4, 2012 8


This interactive tutorial serves as an introduction to normal vascular anatomy of the extremities for preclinical medical students. It is composed of high-quality digital subtraction angiography and surface-rendered CT images containing comprehensive labeling of blood vessels. Image resolution exceeds that found in many more conventional learning resources such as textbooks, dissectors, and atlases. Images were digitized and converted into Macromedia Flash to stimulate self-directed learning by integrating introductory angiography into a structured format that is readily accessible for local and distance learning. Active learning was achieved by providing learners with opportunities for repetition and self-assessment through immediate feedback and quizzes on labeled structures. The tutorial is best used in conjunction with radiology/anatomy lectures and labs to reinforce the didactic and practical (dissection) experiences for learners enrolled in human anatomy courses. Convenient access also is available to learners reviewing for clinical certification and licensure examinations or to patients conferring with practitioners about their own vascular disorders.

In 2007 to 2010, learners scored between 63rd to 77th percentiles on the gross anatomy subject examination. These scores are significantly higher than those recorded prior to implementation of instructional technology into the curriculum in beginning in 2001.


Klinkhachorn P, Reilly F, Tallaksen R, et al. Angiographic anatomy of the upper and lower extremities. MedEdPORTAL Publications. 2012;8:9129.

Contains Information Suitable for Patient Education

Educational Objectives

  1. To learn the normal patterns of vascular anatomy of the upper and lower extremities.
  2. To create opportunities for learner self-assessment through repetition, immediate feedback, and quizzes.


  • Instruction, Computer-Assisted, Clinical Competence, Angiography


  1. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 6th edition, 2010, by Moore, et al, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers
  2. Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, 12th edition, 2009, by Agur and Dalley, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers
  3. Atlas of Anatomy, 4th edition, 2006, by Frank Netter, Saunders and Elsevier Publishing
  4. Atlas of vascular Anatomy: An Angiographic Approach, 1997, by Renan Uflacker, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers
  5. Essential Clinical Anatomy, 3rd edition, 2007, by Moore and Agur, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers

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ISSN 2374-8265