Emergency Management of Dental Traumas: Avulsions

Publication ID Published Volume
9307 January 14, 2013 9

Abstract

One of the most common oral injuries that occur in the child or adolescent involves the avulsed tooth.  There has been an increase in the numbers of these injuries worldwide to sports activities, and some of the newer recreational activities (skate-boarding, trampoline jumping etc.). Worldwide there are 5.8 million cases of trauma per year. Male patients are 2/3 of victims, hospitalizations have increased thirty-fold and emergency room visits have increased 300-fold.

Although this is a common problem for all types of dental practices, many injuries occur after hours or on weekends when most dental practices are shut.  Therefore many cases present to the Emergency Room, where there are no dental staff present.  It is incumbent on the medical staff to have an understanding on how to diagnose dental injuries, manage them and make the appropriate referral to a dental practitioner.

There are several injuries that can occur to the oral area (soft tissue, fractures to the teeth, luxations, avulsions), this first resource will focus on how to deal with avulsions. An avulsion of a tooth occurs when the tooth gets knocked out the socket.  Typically this occurs to the central incisors, and the maxillary teeth are affected more than the mandibular teeth.  The objectives of the resources developed (PowerPoint, problem based learning case and video) are to teach the student/practitioner how to provide first-line management for stabilizing oral injuries, specifically the avulsed tooth, to the point of referral.

The power point presentation was presented to a small sample of physicians. Feedback was obtained and incorporated into the final presentation. The main issue with the original presentation was the lack of definition of dental terminology/concepts that are not acquired in medical school training. Clinical photos and radiographs were added to help clarify terminology and the power point.

The significance of this module is that it is comprehensive but succinct. It is a novel interdisciplinary presentation of the topic based upon the most current treatment guidelines in publication and incorporates several modalities to optimize learning. In addition, the instructor's guide for the entire resource coupled with the tutorial guide for the problem based case make it a useable teaching tool. Learning issues included with the problem based case afford the instructor a framework for evaluating knowledge acquisition.

Citation

Chase I, Karimbux N, Isong I, Freer Z. Emergency management of dental traumas: avulsions. MedEdPORTAL Publications. 2013;9:9307. http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.9307

Contains time-sensitive information that will likely be inaccurate, obsolete, or irrelevant by November 30, 2015

Contains Information Suitable for Patient Education

Educational Objectives

  1. To understand what the prevalence and incidence and predisposing factors of avulsion injuries are in the child and adolescent
  2. To experience a case scenario that helps them work through the problem of diagnosing a clinical situation and how to manage the situation.
  3. To learn a step-by-step guide to re-implanting and splinting an avulsed tooth.
  4. To be able to give post-operative instructions and the appropriate referral/time-line for referral.

Keywords

  • Tooth Avulsion, Replantation, Splinting, Permanent Teeth, Building Oral Health Capacity (BOHC) Collection, Trauma

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ISSN 2374-8265