Original Publication
Open Access

Critical Synthesis Package: The Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Tools

Published: May 5, 2015 | 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10098

Included in this publication:

  • Critical Analysis of the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Tools.pdf
  • Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist.pdf
  • Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted.pdf
  • Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Forms.pdf

To view all publication components, extract (i.e., unzip) them from the downloaded .zip file.

Editor's Note: This publication predates our implementation of the Educational Summary Report in 2016 and thus displays a different format than newer publications. It is also part of a discontinued collection that focused on the presentation of health sciences education assessment tools and their reported validity data. 


This Critical Synthesis Package contains: (1) a Critical Analysis of the psychometric properties and the application to health science education of the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement (KCS) Assessment Tools, and (2) a copy of each of the three instruments comprising the KCS Assessment Tools developed by Elizabeth A. Rider, MSW, MD.

The KCS Assessment Tools are three content-valid, paper-based instruments that assess physician-patient communication skills. The Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist (KEECC) is the original instrument. The Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted (KEECC-A) is an updated, construct-valid version. This version was then further adapted into another multi-rater version, the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form (GKCSAF). All three instruments use Likert scales, while the GKCSAF employs additional two forced-choice and two free-text items. The KEECC and KEECC-A are completed by medical educators who rate learners on seven communication skill competencies: Build A Relationship, Open The Discussion, Gather Information, Understand The Patient's Perspective, Share Information, Reach Agreement, Provide Closure. The GKCSAF is completed by the learner (or team, if applicable), and one or more additional raters, such as standardized patients, or faculty instructors. Learners are rated on the same seven competencies as the KEECC and KEECC-A, and two additional communication dimensions: Demonstrates Empathy and Communicates Accurate Information. These instruments were designed for use at all levels of medical education and can be used as formative and summative assessment tools or as a clerkship teaching tool to evaluate actual and simulated physician-patient communication encounters. The GKCSAF has high reliability and internal consistency, but modest interrater reliability. Content and construct validity were good, criterion-related validity was modest, and convergent validity is presently unable to be established. Continuing evaluation and research are necessary for establishing validity and reliability, and to advance research in teaching and assessing physician-patient communication skills.

Educational Objectives

  1. To describe the purpose and basic properties of the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement (KCS) Assessment Tools, including number of items and scales, and psychometric properties;
  2. To describe the application of the KCS Assessment Tools to the field of health sciences education;
  3. To evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the KCS Assessment Tools; and
  4. To provide the KCS Assessment Tools and supplemental materials to aid in its administration.

Author Information

  • Michelle Yoon, PhD: University of Virginia School of Medicine
  • Veronica Michaelsen, MD, PhD: George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences

None to report.

None to report.


Yoon M, Michaelsen V. Critical synthesis package: the Kalamazoo consensus statement assessment tools. MedEdPORTAL. 2015;11:10098. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10098