This Critical Synthesis Package contains: (1) a Critical Analysis of the psychometric properties and the application to health science education of the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI), and (2) a copy of the QDI instrument and the scoring instructions developed by Joseph Ponterotto, PhD.
The QDI is practical, self-administered instrument with 30 items divided into three validated subscales: General (Cognitive) Attitudes Toward Racial Diversity/Multiculturalism, Affective Attitudes Toward More Personal Contact (Closeness) with Racial Diversity, and Attitudes Toward Women’s Equity. The QDI is aligned with contemporary models that consider the multidimensionality of prejudice. The response options are presented along a 5-point Likert scale for each item. Total subscale scores and a total scale score can be calculated. Lower scores indicate higher levels of prejudice and discrimination tendencies. The QDI scores have been shown to be stable and reliable across different samples (college students, dental students, pharmacy students, psychology students, counselling students, nurses, psychologists, social workers, and other community members). Gender, race, political affiliation, geographical location, and age influence QDI scores therefore the balance in samples should be carefully considered. The QDI and its subscales also demonstrated consistent results with more than 14 other instruments used to gauge similar attitudes towards multicultural and gender diversity, demonstrating criterion validity. Questions about the generalizability of the QDI across different ethnic and cultural populations would best be answered by further research. Additionally, studies testing the ability of the QDI to detect change in attitude dimensions due to interventions are needed. Such studies will contribute to clarify whether the different dimensions of prejudice as measured by the QDI, are susceptible to change due to educational interventions or, if otherwise remain stable after late adolescence. Further research and application of the QDI within the health sciences would be welcomed.
- To describe the purpose and basic properties of the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI), including number of items and scales, and psychometric properties;
- To describe the application of the QDI to the field of health sciences education;
- To evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the QD); and
- To provide the QDI and supplemental materials to aid in its administration.
This is an open-access publication distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike license.